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Sarojini Naidu(Nightingale of India) Biography

Sarojini Naidu(Nightingale of India) Biography 


Sarojini Naidu (née Chattopadhyay; 13 February 1879 – 2 March 1949) was an Indian independence activist and poet. She took part in the National Movement, became a follower of Mahatma Gandhi and fought for the attainment of Swaraj. She became the President of Indian National Congress and later she was appointed to the Governor of the United Provinces, now Uttar Pradesh. Known as the 'Nightingale of India'. Her poetry includes children's poems, nature poems, patriotic poems and poems of love and death.
Early life and family
Sarojini was born in a Bengali Hindu family in Hyderabad. Her father, Aghorenath Chattopadhyay, with a doctorate of Science from Edinburgh University, settled in Hyderabad, where he administered Hyderabad college, which later became Nizam College in Hyderabad. Her mother, Barada Sundari Devi Chattopadhyay, was a poet and used to write poetry in Bengali.
She was the eldest of the eight siblings. Sarojini Naidu, having passed her matriculation examination from the University of Madras. In 1895, H.E.H. the Nizam's Charitable Trust founded by the 6th Nizam, Mir Mahbub Ali Khan who gave her the chance to study in England, first at King's College London and later at Girton College, Cambridge.
Sarojini met Paidipati Govindarajulu Naidu, a physician, and at the age of 19, after finishing her studies, she married him. At that time, Inter-caste marriages were not as common as they are today, but both their families approved their marriage.The couple had five children. Their daughter Paidipati Padmaja also joined the independence movement and was part of the Quit India Movement. She was appointed the Governor of the State of West Bengal soon after Indian independence.
Political career
Naidu joined the Indian national movements in the wake of partition of Bengal in 1905. She came in contact with Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Rabindranath Tagore, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Annie Besant, C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.
In 1905, her first collection of poems, named The Golden Threshold was published. Her poems were admired by prominent Indian politicians like Gopal Krishna Gokhale. The Feather of The Dawn which contained poems written in 1927 by Naidu was edited and published posthumously in 1961 by her daughter Padmaja Naidu.
In 1915–18, she travelled to different regions in India delivering lectures on social welfare, women's empowerment and nationalism. She also helped to establish the Women's Indian Association (WIA) in 1917.She was sent to London along with Annie Besant, President of home rule league and Women's Indian Association, to present the case for the women's vote to the Joint Select Committee.
In April 1947 she was present at the Asian Relations Conference in Delhi where the Tibetan Government Representative, Sampho Theiji, said, "In a similar way we are very glad to meet representatives from all the Asian countries in this Conference and we wish to express our sincere gratitude to the great Indian leaders, Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Mrs. Sarojini Naidu, and to all the distinguished representatives who have gathered in this Conference."


Congress Party president
In 1925, Naidu presided over the annual session of Indian National Congress at Cawnpore (now Kanpur).
In 1929, she presided over East African Indian Congress in South Africa. She was awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind Medal by the British government for her work during the plague epidemic in India.
In 1931, she participated in the second round-table conference with Gandhiji and Madan Mohan Malaviya.She was jailed, along with Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Madan Mohan Malaviya, and others for participating in the Salt March, when 1st Round Table Conference took place in London.
Death and legacy
Naidu died of cardiac arrest at 3:30 p.m. (IST) on 2 March 1949 at the Government House in Lucknow. Upon her return from New Delhi on 15 February, she was advised rest by her doctors, and all official engagements were cancelled. Her health deteriorated substantially and bloodletting was performed on the night of 1 March after she complained of severe headache. She died after collapsing following a fit of cough.
Naidu is commemorated in the names of several institutions, including the Sarojini Naidu College for Women, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital and Sarojini Naidu School of Arts and Communication, University of Hyderabad.
Her 135th birth anniversary (2014) was marked by a Google Doodle on Google India's homepage.
In 2018, she was among 150 "Leading Women" featured by the University of London to mark the 150 years since women gained access to higher education in the UK in 1868.
Golden Threshold
The Golden Threshold is an off-campus annexe of University of Hyderabad. The building was the residence of Naidu's father Aghornath Chattopadhyay, the first Principal of Hyderabad College. It was named after Naidu's collection of poetry. Golden Threshold now houses Sarojini Naidu School of Arts & Communication of University of Hyderabad.
Published Books
  • 1905: The Golden Threshold, published in the United Kingdom (text available online)
  • 1912: The Bird of Time: Songs of Life, Death & the Spring, published in London
  • 1917: The Broken Wing: Songs of Love, Death and the Spring, including "The Gift of India" (first read in public in 1915)
  • 1919: Muhammad Jinnah: An Ambassador of Unity
  • 1943: The Sceptred Flute: Songs of India, Allahabad: Kitabistan, posthumously published
  • 1961: The Feather of the Dawn, posthumously published, edited by her daughter, Padmaja Naidu
  • 1971:The Indian Weavers

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