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James Cook Biography

James Cook Biography

Captain James Cook FRS (7 November 1728[NB 1] – 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755.
Where did Captain Cook grow up? 
James Cook was born on October 27, 1728 in Marton, England. His father was a farmer, but as James grew older he began to feel the lure of the sea. At around the age of 18 he took an apprenticeship as a merchant seaman. Although he did well and was advancing in the merchant navy, Cook decided to enlist in the Royal Navy at the start of the Seven Years War. 
It was during the Seven Years War that James became a master at map making. His ability at surveying, navigating, and creating large accurate maps was noticed by those high up in the Navy. 
The Endeavour 
Cook was given command of the Endeavour by England's Royal Society. The ship was a cat-collier that was typically used for carrying coal. It wasn't fast, but it was durable and could carry a lot of supplies. 
Captain Cook introduced some rigid and innovative rules in order to keep his crew healthy and safe. He required his men to bathe every day, the ship to be kept very clean, and the bedding to be aired twice a week. He also brought lots of fresh fruit to keep his men from getting scurvy. These rules and planning helped his men to stay healthy throughout the long voyages ahead. 

First Expedition 
Cook set off for his first journey on August 26, 1768. His main objective was to observe the planet Venus as it passed between the Earth and the Sun. This would help astronomers to calculate the distance of the Sun from the Earth. He also hoped to find the fabled southern continent. 
During this trip he visited Tahiti (where he made the observations of Venus), the Society Islands, and New Zealand. He mapped much of the two main islands of New Zealand, but also ended up fighting with the local Maori tribe. 
Next stop on the journey was the east coast of Australia. Here James and his crew found all sorts of interesting animals and plants including the kangaroo. Unfortunately, the ship was damaged on some coral and they had to stop for a while to do repairs. Many of the crew got malaria from mosquitoes during this stop and over 30 of the crew died from the disease. 
Finally they returned home in July of 1771, nearly three years after their departure.
Second Expedition 
Captain Cook's second expedition took place from 1772-1775. This time he took two ships, the Adventure and the Resolution. His goal was to either discover the southern continent or prove that it didn't exist. He went below 70 degrees latitude. This was the furthest south any European had explored. He also visited Easter Island. 
Final Journey 
Cook's final expedition lasted from 1776 to 1779. The goal of this journey was to find a northwest passage across North America to Asia. He searched the coast of Alaska to no avail. He did find the Hawaiian Islands, however (they were named the Sandwich Islands at the time).
Cook was attacked and killed in 1779 during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific while attempting to kidnap Kalaniʻōpuʻu, a Hawaiian chief, in order to reclaim a cutter stolen from one of his ships. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which influenced his successors well into the 20th century, and numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him.

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